What exactly is a ‘Gene profile’?

Think of it like a fingerprint that some cells exhibit and others don’t. It’s a small collection of genes which are up or down regulated in relation to one another. Their differences are not absolute, but relative. So if CellA has 100 counts of Gene1 and 50 counts of Gene2, this creates a relation of 2:1 between Gene1 and Gene2. If CellB has a 20 counts of Gene1 and 10 counts of Gene2, then they share the same relation. If CellA and CellB share other relations with other genes than this might be enough to say that they share a Gene profile, and will therefore likely cluster together as they describe the same cell type.